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However, the same terms often do refer to ethnic and linguistic distinctions when applied to Yi groups in Yunnan. Kongtong, Wawa, and Youduoluo villages (Northern Nusu); Guoke, Jiajiu, Puluo, and Tuoping (Tongping) villages (Southern Nusu); Laomudeng, Miangu, Shawa, Zhiziluo, and Zileng villages (Central Nusu). 2,000 Northern Nusu; 4,000 Southern; 6,000 Central.

[gld] Northeast corner of Heilongjiang Province, near merge of Heilong, Songhua, and Wusuli rivers, Tongjiang county, Bacha and Jiejinkou villages; Raohe county, Sipai village. About half speak Sungari dialect, half speak Nanai proper (Salminen 2007). When applied to the Nuosu, terms Black Yi (Hei Yi) and White Yi (Bai Yi) refer to caste distinctions rather than to ethnic or linguistic distinctions. More Information [nuf] Yunnan province: Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture, southern Fugong county, Pihe town area. [orh] Heilongjiang province: Da Hinggan Ling prefecture, Huma and Tahe counties; Heihe prefecture, Xunke county; Yichun prefecture, Jiayin county, Heihe city; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: Hulun Buir league, Butha and Oroqen banners.

Related to Hpon [hpo], Maru [mhx], Lashi [lsi], Zaiwa [atb]. Due to intense linguistic contact with the Lisu, Anong is being radically restructured (Sun and Liu 2009). More Information [vwa] Yunnan province: Simao prefecture: Lahu and Va, Lancang Lahu, Menglian Dai, and Ximeng Va autonomous counties. Masan Dialect: 33,000 in Ximeng County; Xiyun Dialect: 2,200 in Lancang and Menglian counties; Dawangnuo Dialect: 30,000 in Menglian and Ximeng counties; Awalei Dialect: 2,200 in Ximeng County; Awa proper: 30,600 In Lancan County. Chinese linguists consider the Iu Mien spoken in Changdong, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi to be the standard. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kim Mun [mji], 70% with Biao-Jiao Mien [bje], 61% with Dzao Min [bpn]. [lhu] Yunnan province: Lincang prefecture, Gengma Dai, and Va autonomous counties; Simao prefecture, Lahu, Lancang Lahu, Menglian Dai, and Va autonomous counties. Lahu Shi and Kucong Lahupu (White Lahu dialect, in Zhenyuan County, China) are distinct. Menghai county, Mengzhe township, Van Phin (Laopinzhai) village (Laopin dialect). Lexical similarity: 60% between Western and Northern Jiarong dialects. [khb] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, 3 counties: Jinghong (Chiang Hung, Chien Rung), Menghai, and Mengla; some in Simao municipal prefecture, Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous counties. Lexical similarity: 95% with Northern Thai [nod], 86% with Central Thai [tha], 92%–93% with Shan [shn], 92%–95% with Khün [kkh]. [mnc] Beijing, Hebei, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces; Heilongjiang province: some villages in Aihui and Fuyu counties; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: small enclave northeast. Some additional semi-speakers in 3 remote villages (Bradley 2007a). [zng] Yunnan province: Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Jinping county, Mengla district; 4 villages: Dadui Leigongdaniu Zhai, Heping Xia Zhai, Heping Zhong Zhai, and Nanguo Xin Zhai.

Different from Nung [nut] (Tai family) of Viet Nam, Laos, and China, Nong Zhuang (Tai family) of China, and from Chinese Nung (Yue [yue]) of Viet Nam. Differences from other Mienic languages are in the tone system, consonants, vowel quality, vowel length. Na (Black Lahu, Lohei, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Musse Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Black Lahu dialect and Lahu Shi [lhi] have difficult intelligibility. [lwm] Yunnan province: Lancang, Menglian, and Ximeng counties. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. [lis] Sichuan province: southwest Liangshan prefecture; Yunnan province: 11 prefectures, 63 counties, upper reaches of Mekong and Salween rivers. Much dialectal variation; some do not understand each other. Different from Tai Nüa [tdd], each having their own literary tradition. [mmd] Guangxi province: Huanjiang Maonan autonomous county, Xianan area: Nandan, Yishan, and Yizhou; a few in Du’an and Hechi counties; Guizhou province: south central small border area.

[acn] Yunnan province: Baoshan prefecture, Longling and Tengchong counties; Dali Bai autonomous prefecture, Yunlong county; Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture and Baoshan district, Liangge, Longchuan, Luxi, and Yingjiang counties, Myanmar border area. [yiz] Yunnan province: Huaning county, Panxi district; northeast Jianshui county, 1 village; north Kaiyuan county, Lebaidao district, Jiedian community; Mazheshao district, Chongzi community; Xiaolongtan district, Xiaolongtan community; Mile county: Jiangbian, Wushan, and Xun Jian districts. Considered genetically related to Chinese, or a mixed language with Chinese, or an independent branch of Tibeto-Burman. More Information [lay] Yunnan province: Diqing Tibetan autonomous prefecture; Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture, Lanping Bai Pumi autonomous county, Hexi district, Lajing township; mountain area of Lancang river. [bfc] Yunnan province: Nujiang prefecture, Lushui county, Luobenzhuo Bai autonomous district, Chenggan, Gudeng, and Shangjiang districts, Liuku and Pianma townships; Baoshan municipality, Mangkuan township; Pu’er municipality. Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese. [bje] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Gongcheng Yao, Guanyang, and Quanzhou autonomous counties; Hunan province: Daoxian and Shuangpai counties. Biaomin (Dongshan) has a much larger speaker population (approximately 35,700) than Jiaogong (Shikou; approximately 10,900). 100,000 ethnic Bunu speak Central Hongshuihe Zhuang [zch] as L1. Formerly considered part of Jianghuai dialect of Mandarin Chinese [cmn], but now considered by many a major dialect of Chinese. Dulong River (Central Dulongjiang, Derung River, Northern Dulongjiang, Southern Dulongjiang), Nu River (Nujiang Dulong). Lexical similarity: 27% with Gelao, 26% with Dong [doc] and Qabiao [laq], 25% with Lachi [lbt]. Dialects are likely three separate mutually unintelligible languages. [jiy] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, east of Jinghong in Youle mountains.

A’ndze, A’ntsaozo, Aji, Ajiwa, Azan, Black Phula, Cowtail Phula, Golden Phula, Han Phula, Hei Phula, Hua Phula, Hua Yi, Jin Phula, Nimitso, Niuweiba Phula, Phula, Phuphje, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula. Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese. Quite different from and unintelligible with Biao Jiao Mien [bje] or its dialect Biaomin, also called Biao Mien. Luowo subdialect of Ha dialect is considered the standard. [ium] Guangdong province: Ruyuan county; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Dayao mountains; Guizhou province: Congjiang, Libo, and Rongjiang counties; Hunan, Jiangxi, and Yunnan provinces. Pingdi Yao (Piongtuojo, Piongtoajeu) is a variety of Chinese with 1,000,000 speakers, half of whom are members of Yao nationality, Guangdong Province, Hunan-Guangxi border. More Information [jya] Sichuan province: Dangba, Songgang, Suomo, Zhuokeji (Situ dialect); Aba county, Kehe and Rongan townships; Maerkang county, Chabao district, Dazang, Longerjia, and Shaerzong townships (Chabao); Maerkang county, Sidaba district, Caodeng, Kangshan, and Ribu townships (Sidaba); Rangtang county, between Shili and Wuyi and townships along middle Duke river; Seda county, a small town; Duke and Seda rivers’ confluence. Varieties of Situ are: Ma’erkang, Lixian, Jinchuan (Dajin), and Xiaojin. Western and Northern phonology are fairly similar but differ greatly from Eastern. Includes Atsi [atb], Maru [mhx] and Lashi [lsi] speakers (2000 census). [jiu] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, east of Jinghong in Youle mountains. [xal] Gansu province: northern border area; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: Alashan league; Qinghai province: Kukunor region, Lake Qinghai northwest; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Jungaria region. [kaf] Yunnan province: Yuxi prefecture, Tonghai county, Xingmeng Mongolian autonomous township. Most young people are semi-speakers, speaking Chinese instead (Bradley 2007a). [kaz] Gansu province: Akesai Kazakh autonomous county; Qinghai province: northwest; Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: Yili Kazakh autonomous prefecture, Balikun Kazakh and Mulei Kazakh autonomous counties. 830,000 Northeastern Kazakh, 70,000 Southwestern Kazakh (1982). [ykl] Yunnan province: southeast Wenshan county, Liujin township; north and central Maguan county, Dalishu, Miechange, Muchang, and Renhe townships.

[mmr] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Nandan county, Hechi municipality; Guizhou province: Songtao county, southeast Chongqing and Tongren municipalities, Xiushan and Youyang counties; Hubei province: Xuan’en county; Hunan province: Baojing, Fenghuang, Guzhang, Huadan, Jishou, Longshan, and Xinhuang Mayang counties. [yiq] Yunnan province: Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Wuding county, Chadian, Jincheng, and Jiuchang districts; Dayao, north Fumin, Jingdong, Jinggu, north Lufeng, south Luquan, Nanhua, Yao’an, Yimen, Yongren, and Zhenyuan counties. In Xinjiang, Torgut, Oold, Korbet, and Hoshut peoples are known as the Four tribes of Oirat. More Information [mlm] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Hechi prefecture, Luocheng Mulao autonomous county (90% in Dongmen and Siba communes); Yizhou county. Fewer than 10,000 monolinguals (including women and preschool children). They live near the Han, Dong [doc], Hmong Njua [hnj], and Iu Mien [ium].

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[ylo] Sichuan province: western Panzhihua city; Yunnan province: southern Huaping and eastern Yongsheng counties. Mostly in Yunnan, with about 2,000 in Pingjiang and Futian townships of Panzhihua (Bradley 2007a). [nxq] Northwest Yunnan Province, a majority (over 200,000) in Yulong (formerly Lijiang) Naxi autonomous county. Northern Shypnra, Southern Shypnra, Yynuo, Suondi (Adu). [yhl] Yunnan province: Kaiyuan county, east Beige township; north Mengzi, north Pingbian, west Weshan counties; Yanshan county, southeast Ashe township. [ypb] Yunnan province: central, north-central and southeast Kaiyuan county, west Beige township; Laozhai, Lebaidao, Mazheshao, Yanggai, and Zhongheying townships.

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