Believing in beneficial mutations is like believing a short-circuit in the motherboard of your computer could improve its performance.
To make any lasting change, a beneficial mutation would have to spread ("sweep") through a population and stay (become "fixed").
They said there was a "paucity of classic sweeps revealed by our findings". In this case the fruit flies weighed less, lived shorter lives, and were less resistant to starvation. Except for number 11, the changes found in over 60,000 generations of bacteria were due to the disruption, degradation, or loss of genetic information.
"In contrast to expectation," their test detected nothing, but they could not quite bring themselves to say it. But, as usual when breeding plants and animals, there was a down side. Genome-wide analysis of a long-term evolution experiment with Drosophila. There was an insertion mutation in a gene that represses the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a molecule that participates in many metabolic reactions, some affecting longevity. A replication of the region happened to put the transporter gene next to one of these promoters, so it could now be expressed in the presence of oxygen.This is where the imaginary part of the theory of evolution comes in.It says that ex, eye-hand coordination, balance, navigation systems, tongues, blood, antennae, waste removal systems, swallowing, joints, lubrication, pumps, valves, autofocus, image stabilization, sensors, camouflage, traps, ceramic teeth, light (bioluminescence), ears, tears, eyes, hands, fingernails, cartilage, bones, spinal columns, spinal cords, muscles, ligaments, tendons, livers, kidneys, thyroid glands, lungs, stomachs, vocal cords, saliva, skin, fat, lymph, body plans, growth from egg to adult, nurturing babies, aging, breathing, heartbeat, hair, hibernation, bee dancing, insect queens, spiderwebs, feathers, seashells, scales, fins, tails, legs, feet, claws, wings, beaver dams, termite mounds, bird nests, coloration, markings, decision making, speech center of the brain, visual center of the brain, hearing center of the brain, language comprehension center of the brain, sensory center of the brain, memory, creative center of the brain, object-naming center of the brain, emotional center of the brain, movement centers of the brain, center of the brain for smelling, immune systems, circulatory systems, digestive systems, endocrine systems, regulatory systems, genes, gene regulatory networks, proteins, ribosomes that assemble proteins, receptors for proteins on cells, apoptosis, hormones, neurotransmitters, circadian clocks, jet propulsion, etc.Fruit flies are much more complex than already complex single-cell bacteria.
Scientists like to study them because a generation (from egg to adult) takes only 9 days. Here is how the imaginary part is supposed to happen: On rare occasions a mutation in DNA improves a creature's ability to survive, so it is more likely to reproduce (natural selection).The types of bird beaks, the colors of moths, leg sizes, etc. Each type and length of beak a finch can have is already in the gene pool and adaptive mechanisms of finches.