In northern Nigeria many people who are not ethnic Hausas speak both Hausa and their own tribal language.
Hausa is the oldest known written language in West Africa, dating back to before 1000 The dominant indigenous languages of the south are Yoruba and Igbo.
In a country with more than 250 individual tribal languages, English is the only language common to most people.
Unofficially, the country's second language is Hausa.
The dry, open grasslands of the savanna make cereal farming and herding a way of life for the Hausa and the Fulani.
Living among creeks, lagoons, and salt marshes makes fishing and the salt trade part of everyday life in the area.With regard to ethnic breakdown, the Hausa-Fulani make up 29 percent of the population, followed by the Yoruba with 21 percent, the Igbo with 18 percent, the Ijaw with 10 percent, the Kanuri with 4 percent, the Ibibio with 3.5 percent, and the Tiv with 2.5 percent.Major urban centers include Lagos, Ibidan, Kaduna, Kano, and Port Harcourt. English is the official language of Nigeria, used in all government interactions and in state-run schools.Abuja is in a federal territory that is not part of any state.
While Abuja is the official capital, its lack of adequate infrastructure means that Lagos remains the financial, commercial, and diplomatic center of the country. Nigeria has the largest population of any African country.
Their grouping together into a single entity known as Nigeria was a construct of their British colonizers.