The Khitan people, who used a para-Mongolic language, founded a state known as the Liao dynasty (907-1125) in Central Asia and ruled Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern Korea, and North China.
In 1206, Genghis Khan was able to unite and conquer the Mongols, forging them into a fighting force which went on to create the largest contiguous empire in world history, the Mongol Empire.
This impact threw up the massive chain of mountains known as the Himalayas.
The Himalayas, Greater Khingan and Lesser Khingan mountains act like a high wall, blocking the warm and wet climate from penetrating into Central Asia.
During the collapse of the Qing in 1911, Mongolia declared independence but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence and until 1945 to gain international recognition.
As a consequence, it came under strong Soviet influence: In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared, and Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as Soviet politics of the time.
There are around 700 deer stones known in Mongolia of a total of 900 deer stones that have been found in Central Asia and South Siberia. Some researchers claim that deer stones are rooted in shamanism and are thought to have been set up during the Bronze Age around 1000 BC, and may mark the graves of important people.
Later inhabitants of the area likely reused them to mark their own burial mounds, and perhaps for other purposes.
The population during the Copper Age has been described as paleomongolid in the east of what is now Mongolia, and as europid in the west.Stone tools have been found in the southern, Gobi, region, perhaps dating back as much as 800,000 years.