The city was blockaded by Union forces, who gained control of nearby Fort Clinch.
Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces.
Visitors arrived by steamboat and later by railroad.
President Grover Cleveland attended the Sub-Tropical Exposition in the city on February 22, 1888 during his trip to Florida.
Its riverine location facilitates Naval Station Mayport, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, the U. Marine Corps Blount Island Command, and the Port of Jacksonville, Florida's third largest seaport.
Consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population within the city limits.In March 1864 a Confederate cavalry confronted a Union expedition in the Battle of Cedar Creek.